課題: Unit 1 Introduction to Automobile 一、教學目的： 了解汽車的基本結構，掌握有關汽車結構的專用 英語詞匯。
三、教學難點： 某些基本句型及有關汽車結構的專業英語詞匯。 四、教學時數： 2 學時，其中實踐性教學 學時。 五、習題：
Unit 1 Introduction to Automobile
Karl Benz from Germany built the first car driven by an internal combustion engine in 1886. Auto components were all made by hand. It is already one hundred years since the first automobile was invented in the world. The manufacturers have never stopped making research for new models. Henry Ford standardized auto components. This laid the foundations for manufacturing autos on an assembly line. General Motors, Toyota, Nissan and Ford are generally considered to be the four largest auto manufacturers in the world. The auto industry of China did not start until the 1950's. The Shanghai Auto Industry Corporation has established joint ventures with German Volkswagen and American General Motors. The joint ventures have marked a new stage in the development of the auto industry of China.
What is the first thing you do to start a car? You put your car key into the ignition lock and turn it. The car key opens a path so that electric current can flow from the car battery to the starter. The starter is just powerful enough to start the engine turning. Now the engine is running smoothly and you want to get moving. The gears in the gearbox go to work by connecting the moving parts of the engine to the wheels. There are at least three sets of gears in the gearbox. The first a set of gears has the hardest work of all, to start the car moving. When the next a set of gears are used, the car picks up speed. Finally, when the car is moving easily, the gears are shifted again. We say then that the car is in high gear.
Every car has a clutch, which takes the pressure off the gears so they can shift. In some cars the driver has to step on a pedal to release the clutch, and then shift the gears with a lever. In other cars all the shifting is automatic.
The gears in the gearbox multiply the torque from the engine, and send it back to the rear axle by way of the drive shaft. The drive shaft has joints, just as your arms and leg shaft. The joints allow the shaft to move up and down as the wheels go over bumps. Where the drive shaft meets the rear axle (which is a rod connecting the back
wheels), there is the group of gears called the differential. These gears turn the rear wheels. They let each wheel turn at its own speed when it is necessary. If the car is turning a corner, the outside wheel has to turn faster than the inside one, which acts as a sort of pivot.
Other gears connect the steering wheel to the front wheels which steer the car while the rear wheels push. The foot brake pedal and the hand brake are connected to the wheels too. When you press on the foot brake, friction bands push hard against the wheel drums and stop the wheels from turning. The hand brake is connected to the brake shoes on the rear wheels.
On the instrument panels there are several instruments which tell us what's going on under the hood. The gas gauge tells how much gasoline is in the tank. The oil gauge tells if the engine is getting enough oil (A thin film of oil has to keep flowing around all the moving parts of the engine to keep them working smoothly and safely). The ammeter tells if the generator is sending new electricity into the battery. This should be happening most of the time when the engine is running. The temperature gauge tells if the engine is being cooled enough. If there is not enough water in the radiator, or if the fan isn't blowing enough air back across the pipes, the engine gets too hot. The speedometer tells how fast the car is moving. It does this by measuring how fast the wheels are turning.
New words and phrase：
1、internal combustion engine [簡明英漢詞典] 內燃機 2、component [簡明英漢詞典] n. 元件，構件 3、be made by hand 手工制作
4、It is already one hundred years since the first automobile was invented in the world. （注意主、從句時態）
5、manufacturer [簡明英漢詞典] n.制造業者, 廠商 manual [簡明英漢詞典] n.手冊, 指南
adj.手的, 手動的, 手工的, 體力的, 手冊的
6、making research for 研究 7、stop +doing sth
stop +-to do sth 辨別：“停下一直在做的事”，“停下去做某事” They stopped eating.
We stopped to rest. 我們停下來休息
8、standardize [簡明英漢詞典] vt.使符合標準, 使標準化 9、lay the foundations for 為……奠定基礎
10、assembly line [簡明英漢詞典] n.(工廠產品的)裝配線
11、General Motors, Toyota, Nissan and Ford are generally considered to be the four largest auto manufacturers in the world. 注意最高級使用。
12、joint venture 合資[合營]企業; 短期合伙[合資經營]
“foreign capital ” or “overseas investment” 外資 13、ignition lock 點火開關
14、gearbox [簡明英漢詞典] n.變速箱 （transmission） AT: automatic transmission MT: manual transmission
15、pick up speed [簡明英漢詞典] 加快速度 16、shift 換擋
17、clutch [簡明英漢詞典] n.離合器 18、multiply [簡明英漢詞典] v.乘, 增加
19、by way of [簡明英漢詞典] adv.經由, 作為, 為了 20、joint n.等速萬向節,萬向節,聯軸節 21、bump [簡明英漢詞典] n.撞擊,顛簸 22、differential n.差速器